January 29, 1979
CATHOLIC BISHOPS' CONFERENCE OF THE PHILIPPINES
"Thou Shalt Not Kill:" A Joint Pastoral Letter On the Life of the
The United Nations has declared the year 1979 as the International Year of
the Child. The late Pope Paul VI gave recognition to this event in his
allocution of June 28, 1976, 15th anniversary of his elevation to the
In the declaration of the United Nations, the right of the unborn child has
been ignored. In view of this, Pope John Paul II, in several of his speeches,
focused attention on the basic human right of the unborn child: his right to
In communion, therefore, with the mind and heart of the Holy Father, and
shocked by the UN statistical report that more than 50 million abortions are
procured each year,* we, the Bishops of the Philippines, hereby declare the year
1979 the Year of the Unborn Child. We focus on the right of the unborn child,
with a deep sense of urgency, because abortion is now widespread and a shocking
reality in our country too, both in the rural and in the urban areas.
Abortion in the Philippine Setting
In a rural sampling -- admittedly inadequate -- one out of six mothers have
already undergone abortion at least once; about a half approve abortion and more
than one-half of the said mothers believe abortion to be licit. (Philippine
Population Program, FHC, Washington, D.C.)
Some physicians, by profession committed to the defense of life, have become
agents of death in destroying fetal human life. Others have maintained discreet
silence over abortion perpetrated by medically untrained practitioners,
popularly known as "hilots".
A good number of clinics and hospitals, all over the country, are notorious
for their being slaughter-houses of unborn children.
While abortion is contrary to our civil laws, public authorities have
accepted the inclusion of abortion in the training of public health officials,
have permitted the entry of sophisticated instruments of abortion into the
country, continue the spread of abortifacient IUDs and encourage the promotion
of abortifacient injectibles.
The Mass Media have been instrumental in desensitizing public opinion to look
with indifference on abortion and in numbing sensitivities to the abomination of
Leading to this sad situation are the following factors:
1. Contraceptive drive: Anti-life in intent, it has created the anti-life
mentality in our people, with a built-in intolerance for failure. Logically and
irreversibly it leads to radical measures such as sterilization and then
abortion. Unless stopped, the Contraceptive Drive in the long run will lead our
society to the eventual acceptance of euthanasia or mercy-killing.
2. Violence, as a pattern, lowers the esteem for life. Kidnappings, forcible
ejection of the poor and the powerless, sudden disappearance of people, torture
and many others are not always reported in the newspapers, but they are common
knowledge. In a climate that devaluates life, what chances do the helpless have,
whose lives have just begun, powerless to cry out in protest?
3. Manipulation breaks down esteem for people as human beings. It is now
subtly structured into our own social and health services. In the case of
industrial physicians, government workers like midwives, nurses and medical
health officers; and in the training programs for them, there are manipulative
practices that violate conscience and hamper the exercise of one's freedom. (Dr.
Vicente Rosales on the Philippine Population Program, April 18, 1978)
4. Discrimination in setting price tags on human lives. Some lives are more
valuable than others. The unconditional value due to every human life is thereby
destroyed. Thus the deformed and the handicapped become candidates for
sterilization and abortion. Every child is merely a consumer and can be looked
upon as a liability to our society and hence may become unwanted.
This outlook on life is reflected in the system of priorities set up by
financial institutions. Thus, more funds are allocated for hotels, amusement
resorts and parks at the expense of the real needs of our people such as
hospitals, leprosaria, and mental institutions, school buildings and facilities.
5. Commercial Trafficking of people reduces them to the level of products for
consumption. We make much of the beauty and grace of the Filipina. But is this
to make the exploitation of her flesh in the tourist market more enticing?
All these factors lead to the devaluation and eventual disregard of human
life. This is a tragedy. But a deeper tragedy is the gradual extinction of the
capacity to love and to care. Every refusal to accept new life is a refusal to
love. And this dying of unselfish love in the heart of man, constitutes a most
serious crisis in our society today.
The whole of mankind bears constant testimony to the sacredness of human life
not only after birth but from its inception. Man in fact is born with this
reverence for life, for nature has imbedded in his heart an instinct of
reverence for new human life. This instinct is a distinctive trait of man, and
history testifies how people who smothered this instinct lapsed into
The earliest recorded laws enacted by men attest to this profound reverence
for human life from the first known moments of its presence. The Sumerian (2000
BC) and the Assyrian (1500 BC) Codes protected fetal life from abortion with
most severe sanctions. We could say that the Geneva Declaration for Physicians
in 1949, proclaiming "I will preserve the utmost respect for human life from the
time of conception" is a clear echo of the Hippocratic Oath in a symphony of
human reverence for life in all its stages.
Neither was this reverence for life an empty doctrine. It carried with it the
severest sanctions that were enshrined in the laws of civilized nations.
The sad fact that lately some nations deviated from this universally felt
reverence for life, to the extent of approving abortion, only proves the
presence of evil and good in this world. Falsehood and evil could prevail, at
least for some time, over truth and virtue. Moreover, as stated above, skillful
manipulation by some organized groups could distort issues and create an
environment that could present a moral evil as a desirable economic good.
Moreover, wherever abortion has been approved and practiced, in defiance of
nature and of God's law, it did not take long before the evil seed contained in
this practice, surfaced with disastrous results, prompting responsible leaders
and peoples to admit their humiliating error.
This universal pro-life conviction deriving from reason and from the natural
instinct of man finds its fullest basis and support in God's command: "Thou
shalt not kill." This law of God somehow found its place in all human codes of
The Church, on the other hand, has consistently applied this divine law to
human life in all its stages. Through her whole history, the Church has regarded
reverence for human life as a divine command and with unequivocal insistence
applied it to human life at its inception. This is reflected in her constant
teaching and in her Canon Law which punishes with excommunication those who
practice and participate in abortion. This is reflected in her Liturgy enjoining
that aborted fetus be baptized as a human person. She reminds us that human life
has something divine in it, "for human life and the task of transmitting it are
not realities bound up with this world alone, ... but always have a bearing on
the eternal destiny of man." (Church in the World Today, #51) With
uncompromising firmness she declares the nobility of transmitting life and
condemns abortion saying: "God, the Lord of life, has entrusted to men the noble
mission of safeguarding life, and men must carry it out in a manner worthy of
themselves. Life must be protected with the utmost care from the moment of
conception: abortion and infanticide are abominable crimes." (Church in the
World Today, #51) This clear teaching of the Catholic Church is taken up in a
chorus of voices representing not only Christian religions but all major
religions yesterday, today and always.
Action to be Taken
After reviewing the situation on life in the light of history, reason and
Faith, we your Pastors feel that there is an urgency for everyone to get
involved in the fight for life, especially for the life of the unborn.
Therefore, we would like to appeal to our people who in the past had always
shown deep respect and reverence for the sacredness of life: We appeal to
responsible public officials to see to it that government official policies on
respect for human life are consistently implemented in all levels. We commend
those who, in spite of all kinds of pressures, courageously stand by their
convictions. We appeal to parents, especially to mothers, to treasure the new
life as a gift from God. We commend especially those who, having less of
material comforts, are more generous and self-sacrificing in embracing life --
sometimes at the cost of terrible embarrassment. We appeal to physicians, nurses
and midwives to be always faithful to their sacred oath and to live out the
courage of their moral conviction. We commend those who do not compromise the
integrity of their profession even under harassment and persecution. We appeal
to all teachers and school officials to be more dedicated to their vocation as
real educators. We commend those who stand by their conscience in imparting
human values and attitudes to the youth in spite of questionable incentives. We
appeal to those who care for the physically, mentally and socially handicapped
to be more patient and selfless in their work. We commend those whose dedication
is an inspiration for greater respect for life itself. We appeal to the vast
majority of the population -- our youth -- to take life seriously. We commend
with admiration the courage of those who are able to resist the pressures of
being exploited for anti-life propaganda. We appeal to the Mass Media to respect
the delicate sensitivities of our people in forming public opinion. We commend
those who, in spite of the allure of money, fearlessly communicate the truth
In this Year of the Unborn Child, our attention is directed to the abuses
against life, to the anti-natalist from which these abuses arise, and to the
atmosphere which makes these abuses possible. Does not the future, therefore,
look dark for the child, especially the unborn, in our country? We would despair
did we not have the eyes of Faith to perceive other realities that awaken hope.
We already cited and commended the different sectors of our society which
have stood and continue to stand for life in spite of overwhelming odds. And
there are many others whose lives we may overlook but in whom respect for life
is very much alive. But all these proclaim the hope that in this Year of the
Unborn Child the commitment to life will find its roots in our people.
Throughout this year, let us continually reflect on how Jesus identified
himself with the life of all men. Let us reflect on how He chose to be
particularly identified with those lives that are at the mercy of others, with
the helpless, the defenseless, the children whom he loved and invited: "Suffer
the little children to come to me for theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven." (Matt
19:14) Let us reflect on how His own life in its caring demanded sacrifice. And
finally, let us reflect on how all sacrifice in the caring of every human life,
is a sharing in the mystery of Him who called Himself Life (Jn 11:25).
For the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines:
+ JAIME L. CARDINAL SIN
Archbishop of Manila
January 29, 1979
(*) Demography Yearbook (U.N. Statistical Office)